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BREAST CANCER

BREASTCANCER: It is reported that one out of 8 women will be caught by breast cancer in a certain period of her life. Even though it is also seen at men, women cases are 100 times more than men’s cases. From 1970’s till today, an increase is happening in breast cancer cases and modern western life style is shown as a cause for this. Its frequency to be seen in North American and Eurpoean countries is higher than from the other parts of thhe world. If breast cancer is deteceted early before it is spread, the patient has a life chance of 96%. Each year one in 44,000 women dies from breast cancer. The best protective method against breast cancer is early diagnosis. There are many types of breast cancer. The most frequently encountered type ductal carcinoma begins in the milk channels of the breast. When breast cancer is spread out of the breast, the lymphatic nodules under the armpit are the most frequent spreading places. Cancerous cells may spread to the other lymph nodes of the breast, to the bone, liver and lungs. Each woman has the risk of developing breast cancer. In fact, in most of the women who develop breast cancer the risk factors aren’t significant. The factors increasing breast cancer risk are being at an age more than 50, if one of the close relatives is breast cancer (if mother or sister is breast cancer, 2-3 times more), cancer to be detected at the other breast before, to begin menstruating before 12 years old, not to be pregnant before and to menstruate after 50 years of age. Researches have shown that there are some genes inside the breast cells which increase breast cancer risk. Genetic changes may be from the family (hereditary) or they may develop during the life time. Breast cancer generally begins in only one cell. Today it is not exactly known the reason of breast cancer and how it will develop. Breast cancer is a complex illness. Not every case is the same with each other. The phase where breast cancer is in is called as stage. Knowing the real stage will maintain the doctor to make a treatment plan. A person may bbe caught to this illness even though he didn’t do anything wrong in his/her life to cause cancer. Breast cancer isn’t contagious; it doesn’t pass from one patient to another. Breast cancer doesn’t occur by stress or trauma to the breast (impact). In many women who developed breast cancer, there is no risk factor in her nor does she have a story related to the illness in her family. In the war against breast cancer, pink ribbon is chosen as a symbol. Diagnosis methods in breast cancer show variations according to the risk factors the patient carries. Among these factors, the first is age. Although it may be seen at younger ages, this risk increases in later ages. For this reason, the measures to be taken in order to diagnose at later ages are different from early age groups. The twenty year age group should examine themselves in a certain period of every month. During this control, it is investigated whether there is a difference in the breast tissue or not. If a variation similar to an inflation or lump, it should be consulted to the doctor immediately. Even though no variations are detected, they should be examined by the doctor once in three years. The forty year age group should be examined by a doctor in addition to self examination. Besides, they should have mammography at least in two years. The fifty year age group women should continue their periodic examinations and doctor examination once in every year and every year they should be taken a mammography (breast film). In self controls, hardness or mass which comes to the hand in a period over 15 days, thickening in the breast, inflation, color change, thickening in the nipples, redness or scars, shrinkage in breast or nipples, change in the position of the nipples and flux in the nipples require immediate doctor control. After the mammography scan as a result of doctor’s examination, the certain diagnosis is placed by ultrasonography, thin needle aspiration biopsy and normal biopsy controls. Its stages and treatment Stage 1: Tumor is 20 mm or smaller. In this case, the cancer hasn’t jumped to the lymph nodules. In the treatment, after taking the lymph glands by breast protective method, radiation ttreatment is applied. In order to support this, chemotherapy or hormonotherapy is added. And another application is mastectomy. In this method, the cancerous breast is taken away and armpit lymph glands are extracted. Stage 2-A: The tumor is between 20-50 mm and it hasn’t spread to the lymph glands. Stage 2-B: It is in the dimensional interval similar to 2-A (it may bbe more than 50 mm) and it hasn’t spread to the armpit lymph glands. Stage 2: The same treatment method is applied as in Stage 1 and if the tumor is overgrown or it has jumped to the lymph glands, chemotherapy, homotherapy and radiation treatment is proposed as complementary. Stage 3-A: The tumor has jumped to armpit lymph glands and to the tissues out of breast and in this case it is treated by mastectomy. After surgical intervention, chemotherapy and hormone treatment is applied. Stage 3-B: In this stage, the size of the tumor isn’t taken into notice, the tumor is connected to the breast wall and it has spread to the lymph glands. After the application of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for decreasing tumor size, lumpectomy or mastectomy is done. Stage 4: In this stage, cancer has spread to other parts of the body. In the treatment of this stage, it is targeted to increase the lifetime of the patient and to increase the life quality. Chemotherapy or hormonotherapy is made. Related to the complaints of the patient, mastectomy may also be applied. After mastectomy applications, in place of the breast taken, it may be possible to make new breast reconstruction by plastic surgery techniques.

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